Saturday, August 7, 2010


IIO 2010 exam will be held on 28th Sept. 2010. Students you can download sample papers and syllabus from website "".

Friday, March 20, 2009 Impress

OpenOffice।org Impress, a part of the Open Office, is a presentation program similar to Microsoft Power Point। In addition to being able to create PDF files from presentations, it is also able to export presentations to Adobe Flash (SWF) files allowing them to be played on any computer with the flash player installed. It is able to view, edit and save files in several file formats, including the .ppt format , which is used by Microsoft PowerPoint.
1. Creating Slides
It provides you with templates to create professional-looking slides. You can also assign a number of dynamic effects to your slides, including animation and transition effects.
2. Creating Presentations
Several views or pages are available when you design a slide show.It also lets you rehearse the timing of your slide show.
3. Publishing Presentations

You can publish your slides on-screen , as handouts, or as HTML documents.
4. Showing Presentations
It gives you the choice of running a slide show automatically or manually.

Tuesday, December 23, 2008


A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user.A virus can only spread from one computer to another when its host is taken to the uninfected computer, for instance by a user sending it over a network or the Internet, or by carrying it on a removable medium such as a floppy disk, CD, or USB drive. Meanwhile viruses can spread to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer. Viruses are sometimes confused with computer worms and Trojan horses. A worm can spread itself to other computers without needing to be transferred as part of a host, and a Trojan horse is a file that appears harmless. Worms and Trojans may cause harm to either a computer system's hosted data, functional performance, or networking throughput, when executed. In general, a worm does not actually harm either the system's hardware or software, while at least in theory, a Trojan's payload may be capable of almost any type of harm if executed. Some can't be seen when the program is not running, but as soon as the infected code is run, the Trojan horse kicks in. That is why it is so hard for people to find viruses and other malware themselves and why they have to use spyware programs and registry processors.
The Creeper virus was first detected on ARPANET, the forerunner of the Internet in the early 1970s. It propagated via the TENEX operating system and could make use of any connected modem to dial out to remote computers and infect them. It would display the message "I'M THE CREEPER : CATCH ME IF YOU CAN.". It is possible that the Reaper program, which appeared shortly after and sought out copies of the Creeper and deleted them, may have been written by the creator of the Creeper in a fit of regret
The first PC virus in the wild was a boot sector virus called (c)Brain, created in 1986 by the Farooq Alvi Brothers, operating out of Lahore, Pakistan. The brothers reportedly created the virus to deter pirated copies of software they had written. However, analysts have claimed that the Ashar virus, a variant of Brain, possibly predated it based on code within the virus.
Before computer networks became widespread, most viruses spread on removable media, particularly floppy disks. In the early days of the personal computer, many users regularly exchanged information and programs on floppies. Some viruses spread by infecting programs stored on these disks, while others installed themselves into the disk boot sector, ensuring that they would be run when the user booted the computer from the disk, usually inadvertently. PCs of the era would attempt to boot first from a floppy if one had been left in the drive. This was the most successful infection strategy until floppy disks fell from favour, making boot sector viruses the most common in the wild[4].
Since the mid-1990s, macro viruses have become common. Most of these viruses are written in the scripting languages for Microsoft programs such as Word and Excel. These viruses spread in Microsoft Office by infecting documents and spreadsheets. Since Word and Excel were also available for Mac OS, most of these viruses were able to spread on Macintosh computers as well. Most of these viruses did not have the ability to send infected e-mail. Those viruses which did spread through e-mail took advantage of the Microsoft Outlook COM interface.
Macro viruses pose unique problems for detection software[citation needed]. For example, some versions of Microsoft Word allowed macros to replicate themselves with additional blank lines. The virus behaved identically but would be misidentified as a new virus. In another example, if two macro viruses simultaneously infect a document, the combination of the two, if also self-replicating, can appear as a "mating" of the two and would likely be detected as a virus unique from the "parents".
A virus may also send a web address link as an instant message to all the contacts on an infected machine. If the recipient, thinking the link is from a friend (a trusted source) follows the link to the website, the virus hosted at the site may be able to infect this new computer and continue propagating.
The newest species of the virus family is the cross-site scripting virus. The virus emerged from research and was academically demonstrated in 2005. This virus utilizes cross-site scripting vulnerabilities to propagate. Since 2005 there have been multiple instances of the cross-site scripting viruses in the wild, most notable sites affected have been MySpace and Yahoo.
Nonresident viruses
Nonresident viruses can be thought of as consisting of a finder module and a replication module. The finder module is responsible for finding new files to infect. For each new executable file the finder module encounters, it calls the replication module to infect that file.
Resident viruses
Resident viruses contain a replication module that is similar to the one that is employed by nonresident viruses. However, this module is not called by a finder module. Instead, the virus loads the replication module into memory when it is executed and ensures that this module is executed each time the operating system is called to perform a certain operation. For example, the replication module can be called each time the operating system executes a file. In this case, the virus infects every suitable program that is executed on the computer.
Resident viruses are sometimes subdivided into a category of fast infectors and a category of slow infectors. Fast infectors are designed to infect as many files as possible. For instance, a fast infector can infect every potential host file that is accessed. This poses a special problem to anti-virus software, since a virus scanner will access every potential host file on a computer when it performs a system-wide scan. If the virus scanner fails to notice that such a virus is present in memory, the virus can "piggy-back" on the virus scanner and in this way infect all files that are scanned. Fast infectors rely on their fast infection rate to spread. The disadvantage of this method is that infecting many files may make detection more likely, because the virus may slow down a computer or perform many suspicious actions that can be noticed by anti-virus software. Slow infectors, on the other hand, are designed to infect hosts infrequently. For instance, some slow infectors only infect files when they are copied. Slow infectors are designed to avoid detection by limiting their actions: they are less likely to slow down a computer noticeably, and will at most infrequently trigger anti-virus software that detects suspicious behavior by programs. The slow infector approach does not seem very successful, however.
Vectors and hosts
Viruses have targeted various types of transmission media or hosts. This list is not exhaustive:
· Binary executable files (such as COM files and EXE files in MS-DOS, Portable Executable files in Microsoft Windows, and ELF files in Linux)
· Volume Boot Records of floppy disks and hard disk partitions
· The master boot record (MBR) of a hard disk
· General-purpose script files (such as batch files in MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows, VBScript files, and shell script files on Unix-like platforms).
· Application-specific script files (such as Telix-scripts)
· Documents that can contain macros (such as Microsoft Word documents, Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, AmiPro documents, and Microsoft Access database files)
· Cross-site scripting vulnerabilities in web applications
· Arbitrary computer files. An exploitable buffer overflow, format string, race condition or other exploitable bug in a program which reads the file could be used to trigger the execution of code hidden within it. Most bugs of this type can be made more difficult to exploit in computer architectures with protection features such as an execute disable bit and/or address space layout randomization.
PDFs, like HTML, may link to malicious code.[citation needed]
In operating systems that use file extensions to determine program associations (such as Microsoft Windows), the extensions may be hidden from the user by default. This makes it possible to create a file that is of a different type than it appears to the user. For example, a executable may be created named "picture.png.exe", in which the user sees only "picture.png" and therefore assumes that this file is an image and most likely is safe.
· The general term computer virus usually covers programs that modify how a computer works (including damaging the computer) and can self-replicate. A true computer virus requires a host program to run properly -- Melissa used a Word document.
· A worm, on the other hand, doesn't require a host program. It's an application that can replicate itself and send itself through computer networks.
· Trojan horses are programs that claim to do one thing but really do another. Some might damage a victim's hard drive. Others can create a backdoor, allowing a remote user to access the victim's computer system.

Wednesday, April 23, 2008

Internet Explorer Shortcuts

Internet Explorer 6 and 7 F-key shortcuts windows XP & Windows Vista – Internet Explorer 6 or 7 Installed.
The F-key shortcuts are little known things that most of us either don’t know , or don’t remember. But they can be great timesavers. The more you use them , the more you’re likely to remember them. They save time , mouse movements and clicks. We’re all about doing things the easy way. Does that make us lazy or smart ? Well , different folks have different opinions on that. We think it’s smart to do things the simplest , quickest way , especially when the end result is the same as doing it the long way.
So here are a few little F-key shortcuts we use all the time . We thought perhaps you’d be interested in using them too!

Another Little Goodie

Click F4 while your browser is open and last 25 address you have typed out in your addresses bar will show! Place your cursor in the address bar and hit the F4 key. Now , use your up/ down arrow key to scroll to the one you want to go to. Yes, clicking the little arrow to the right of the address bar does the same thing , but sometimes it is nice not to have to leave your keyboard and use your mouse.
And, for closing those nasty little popup windows that don’t have any obvious way to close them (or to avoid getting tricked into clicking “Close” and downloading Spy ware or ad ware) use the ALT key + the F4 key to close the window in focus (the one “on top”).
The more you use these F-key shortcuts, the more likely you are to remember them. If you remember them, you’ll save time. Saving time is good. Remember?

Friday, March 28, 2008

Thursday, February 28, 2008

GaMeS Ki DuNiYa

GAMES software are one of the most important packages of cognitive skills. The package include :

  • Creation

  • Data gathering

  • Testing

  • Evaluation of alternative strategies and tactics

  • Classifying different situations

  • Developing new concepts.

  • Development of technical vocabulary , etc.


Games at - Fowl Words
Fowl Words

Play this fun game between you and 7 hens.

Play this free game now!!

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